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There are many different types of ESL teaching methods, most of which resemble teaching methods used to teach other languages that are not the student's first language. Teaching methods for English as a foreign language may focus on particular problems students often have when learning English, which include pronunciation and grammar problems. The strategies employed by any particular teacher may be different, but common methods include traditional memorization, sentence practice, and games. When possible, immersion is often found to be the most successful teaching method for any language, including English.
ESL teaching methods are usually different depending on the age of the students. Younger students often benefit from flashcards, games, and practice exercises that do not emphasize the underlying rule being used in the language. Adults often find it much less frustrating to read the grammatical rule that is being employed and then practice using that rule. When students are within a specific age or grade level, a school may mandate that certain ESL teaching methods and materials be used. Often, these are designed to meet the demands of relevant English tests.
At all age levels, various ESL teaching methods can be used. In the past, it was very common for ESL classes to focus primarily on translation as a teaching tool, although this is now much less common. Teaching methods may also focus entirely on spoken language, as learning through hearing is often considered more natural. Generally, teaching methods for English must not only teach students how to say specific phrases but also how to innovate new ones.
Although methods that focus on theories of language learning are interesting theoretically, actual teaching strategies used in a classroom generally must address specific problems in the English language. Many students have problems with pronunciation, and exercises that isolate specific sounds in the English language often make excellent ESL teaching methods. Likewise, challenging students with grammatical problems in the abstract can also be useful even if a teacher believes that students tend to learn second languages primarily through hearing the language.
Not all ESL courses focus on the same level of learning, and more advanced classes may make use of very different teaching methods than basic courses. For example, techniques for reducing a student's accent and improving how he or she can express thoughts in a language are important at higher levels, but this requires the student to already have a mastery of grammar. The philosophy of language learning to which the teacher subscribes often affects which ESL teaching methods are used and can even impact the development of new methods. As such, there are many new ESL teaching techniques being invented today as new ideas about how to learn languages evolve.