An ophthalmologist is a licensed medical doctor (MD) or doctor of osteopathy (DO) who takes further specialty training in order to treat most disorders affecting the eyes. This is not the same as an optometrist. An optometrist is still a highly trained individual who receives an OD or Doctor of Optometry degree, but he or she is not a medical doctor, and can’t practice others forms of medical care or treatment. Those who want to become an ophthalmologist must expect to complete medical school first, and become a licensed doctor before they can specialize in ophthalmology.
There may be slightly different routes to this specialty, depending on the country in which a person trains and practices. In places like the US, the first step to become an ophthalmologist is to head to college and usually earn a bachelor’s in science degree. This typically takes four years, though some people can complete their studies in three years, and others may take five years to get a degree. Common majors include those in the sciences and in pre-med.
In late junior year or early senior year, students must begin the process of applying to medical schools and this begins by taking the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). This test can require a significant amount of study, as high scores paired with good grades tend to increases chances of getting into a medical school. Provided a person is accepted to medical school, they will spend three to four more years studying prior to a one-year residency/training requirement that ultimately gets them licensure as a doctor.
In this last year of training, a student that wants to become an ophthalmologist begins looking for residency programs so they can focus on their specialty. Most residency programs from ophthalmology take at least three years, and there are many subspecialties that people may want to become expert in, that can take a year or more of extra training. These can include reconstructive eye surgery, glaucoma treatment, and pediatric ophthalmology, to name just a few.
Once training is completed to become an ophthalmologist, people have one more step. They must become board certified in the specialty. Requirements for board certification may vary in various states or in different countries. It’s important to stay current on what will be required to obtain and retain certification, but these details are usually covered in ophthalmology residencies and fellowships.
The total time required to become an ophthalmologist is usually about 12 years, and longer if subspecialties are pursued. Ophthalmologists usually also have continuing education requirements. They may need to take additional classes every few years to maintain their licenses.